Vitamins and minerals make the human body work properly. Although the body gets the vitamins and minerals from the food you eat every day, some foods have more vitamins and minerals than others. Vitamins fall into two categories: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins - A, D, E, and K - dissolve in fat and can be stored in your body. Water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B6, B12, niacin, riboflavin, and folate) - need to dissolve in water before your body can absorb it. Therefore, your body can not store these vitamins. Any vitamin C or B that your body does not use as it passes through your system is missing most of urination. So the body needs a fresh supply of these vitamins every day.
Whereas vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), minerals are inorganic elements that come from the soil and water and are absorbed by plants or eaten by animals. The body needs larger amounts of some minerals, such as calcium, to grow and stay healthy. Other minerals such as chromium, copper, iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc are called trace minerals because you only need a very small amount of them each day.
There are 13 types of vitamins needed by the body to grow and develop properly. Vitamins include vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and B (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate). [Despite its critical role, the body can only produce vitamin D and vitamin K in the form of provitamin inactive. Therefore, the body needs vitamin intake comes from the food we eat. Fruits and vegetables are known for having a high vitamin content and it is very good for the body. Intake of other vitamins can be obtained through dietary supplements.
Vitamins are organic compounds the amine group of small molecular weight which have vital functions in the metabolism of every organism, which can not be produced by the body. The name is derived from the combination of the Latin word vita which means "life" and the amine (amine) that refers to an organic group having a nitrogen atom (N), because at first vitamin considered so. Later known that many vitamins are devoid of atoms N. Viewed from the side enzimologi (the science of enzymes), vitamins are cofactors in the chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes. Basically, this vitamin compound used by the body to be able to grow and develop normally.
Vitamins have a specific role in the body and can also provide health benefits. If levels of these compounds is insufficient, the body can experience a penyakit.Tubuh only requires vitamins in small amounts, but if it ignored the needs of the metabolism in our body will be disrupted because its function can not be replaced by health lain.Gangguan compound is known as avitaminosis . example is when we are short of vitamin A then we will have myopia. In addition, vitamin intake also should not be excessive because it can cause a disruption in the body's metabolism
Vitamin A Vitamin A, also known as retinol, a vitamin that plays a role in the formation of the sense of sight is good, especially at night, and as one of the components of the pigment in the retina of the eye. In addition, this vitamin also plays an important role in maintaining healthy skin and immunity tubuh.Vitamin these are easily damaged by exposure to heat, sunlight and air. Food sources of vitamin A, such as milk, fish, vegetables (especially green and yellow), and fruits (especially red and yellow, such as red pepper, carrot, banana, and papaya) . If there is deficiency of vitamin A, the patient will experience night blindness and cataracts. In addition, patients with vitamin A deficiency may also experience respiratory infections, immune deficiencies, and skin conditions that are less healthy. Excess intake of vitamin A can cause poisoning that can be caused tubuh.Penyakit include dizziness, hair loss, dry scaly skin, and pingsan.Selain it, when it is in a state of acute, excess vitamin A in the body can also cause myopia, inhibition of the growth of the body, swelling of the liver, and skin irritation.
Vitamin B In general, B group vitamins play an important role in the metabolism in the body, especially in terms of energy release when beraktivitas.Hal is related to its role in the body, which is a coenzyme compounds that can increase the rate of metabolic reactions to various types of energy sources. Some types of vitamins are classified in the group of B vitamins also play a role in the formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). The main source of vitamin B derived from milk, wheat, fish, and green vegetables.
Vitamin B1 Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, is one type of vitamin that plays an important role in maintaining healthy skin and help convert carbohydrates into energy needed for the body's daily routine. In addition, vitamin B1 also helps metabolize protein and fat. When there is deficiency of vitamin B1, the skin will experience a variety of disorders, such as dry skin and can also experience bersisik.Tubuh beri-beri, digestive disorders, heart and nervous system. To prevent that, we need a lot of eating lots of wheat, rice, meat, milk, eggs, and legumes. Foodstuff is a proven contains vitamin B1.
Vitamin B2 Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) plays an important role in the metabolism of many in the human body.  In the body, vitamin B2 serves as a coenzyme flavin mononucleotide kompenen (flavin mononucleotide, FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (adenine dinucleotide, FAD). Both of these enzymes play an important role in the regeneration of energy for the body through the process of respiration. This vitamin also plays a role in the formation of steroid molecules, red blood cells, and glycogen, as well as support the growth of various organs, such as skin, hair, and nails.  sources of vitamin B2 are found in fresh vegetables, soybeans, egg yolks , and milk. Defisiensinya can cause immune deficiencies, dry flaky skin, dry mouth, chapped lips, and mouth sores.
Vitamin B3 Vitamin B3 also known as niacin. This vitamin plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates to produce energy, fat metabolism, and protein.Di in the body, vitamin B3 has a major role in maintaining blood sugar levels, high blood pressure, cure migraine and vertigo. Different types of toxic compounds can be neutralized with the help of this vitamin.  Vitamin B3 is one type of vitamin that is found in animal foods, such as yeast, liver, kidney, meat, poultry, and fish.  However, there are several sources Other foods also contain high levels of this vitamin include wheat and sweet potatoes. Lack of this vitamin can cause the body to experience spasms, muscle cramps, gastrointestinal upset, vomiting, and nausea.
Vitamin B5 Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is involved in many enzymatic reactions in the body. This causes vitamin B5 plays a major role in various types of metabolism, such as the nutritional breakdown reactions, especially fats.  Another role of this vitamin is to maintain good communication between the brain and the central nervous system and produces compounds of fatty acids, sterols, neurotransmitters, and the body's hormones.  Vitamin B5 can be found in many types of animal food variety, ranging from meat, milk, kidney, and liver to plant foods, such as green vegetables and green beans. As well as vitamins B1 and B2, vitamin B5 deficiency can cause chapped skin and scaly. In addition, other disorders that will suffer are muscle cramps and difficulty in sleeping. 
Vitamin B6 Vitamin B6, or also known as pyridoxine, is a vitamin that is essential for body growth. This vitamin acts as a coenzyme A compounds that the body uses to produce energy through the synthesis of fatty acids, such as spingolipid and fosfolipid.Selain, this vitamin also plays a role in the metabolism of nutrients and produce antibodies as a defense mechanism of the body to an antigen or foreign substance hazardous for tubuh.Vitamin This is one of the vitamins are easily available because this vitamin is widely available in the rice, corn, beans, meat, and fish. Lack of vitamins in large quantities can cause chapped skin, muscle cramps, and insomnia.
Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin is just a special kind of vitamins are produced by animals and not found in plants. Therefore, vegetarians often have health problems caused by lack of vitamin ini.Vitamin body's role in energy metabolism in the body. Vitamin B12 is also included in one type of vitamin that plays a role in the maintenance of healthy nerve cells, the formation of DNA and RNA molecules, platelet formation darah.Telur, liver, and meat is a good source of food to meet the needs of vitamin B12. Vitamin deficiency will cause anemia (lack of blood), fatigue lethargy, and skin irritation.
Vitamin C Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) provides many health benefits for our bodies. In the body, vitamin C also acts as a collagen-forming compound which is an important protein constituent of skin tissue, joints, bones, and tissues other backers. Vitamin C is a natural antioxidant that can counteract the free radicals from environmental pollution around us. Related to the nature that can counteract free radicals, vitamin C can help reduce the rate of mutation in the body so that the risk degenaratif diseases, such as cancer, can diturunkan.Selain, vitamin C plays a role in maintaining the shape and structure of the various tissues in the body, such as muscle. This vitamin also plays a role in wound closure when there is bleeding and provide more protection from infectious microorganisms patogen.Melalui mechanism is vitamin C plays a role in maintaining physical fitness and help prevent various diseases. Vitamin C deficiency can also cause bleeding gums and pain in the joints. Excessive accumulation of vitamin C in the body can cause kidney stones, gastrointestinal disorders, and damage to red blood cells.
Vitamin D Vitamin D is also one kind of vitamin that is found in animal foods, such as fish, eggs, milk, and other dairy products, like cheese. Parts of the body most affected by this vitamin is bone. Vitamin D can help calcium metabolism and mineralization tulang.Sel skin will soon produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet rays). When low levels of vitamin D the body will experience an abnormal growth of the foot, where the foot shank to form the letter O and X.Di addition, the tooth will easily be damaged and the muscles will experience another kekejangan.Penyakit is osteomalacia, which is the loss of elemental calcium and excessive phosphorus in the bone. The disease is usually found in adolescents, whereas in the elderly, is a disease that can be induced osteoporosis, the brittle bone as a result decreased bone density. Excess vitamin D can cause the body to experience diarrhea, weight loss, vomiting, and excessive dehydration.
Vitamin E Vitamin E plays a role in maintaining health of various tissues in the body, from the skin tissue, the eye, the red blood cells to the liver. In addition, this vitamin can also protect human lungs from air pollution. The value of work-related health vitamin E in the body as a natural antioxidant compound. Vitamin E is found in fish, chicken, egg yolk, yeast, and vegetable oils. Although only needed in small amounts, vitamin E deficiency can lead to fatal health problems for the body, such as infertility in both men and women. In addition, the nerves and muscles will experience prolonged disruption.
Vitamin K Vitamin K has played a part in the formation of good blood circulation system and wound closure. Deficiency of these vitamins can lead to bleeding in the body and blood clotting difficulties during injury or bleeding. In addition, vitamin C also acts as a cofactor for the enzyme catalyzing carboxylation reaction of the amino acid glutamic acid. Therefore, we need to consume a lot of milk, egg yolks, and fresh vegetables are a good source of vitamin K to meet the needs of the body.
In addition to vitamins, the body also produces other compounds also play a role in the smooth metabolism in the body. These compounds have similar characteristics and activities of the vitamin that is often referred to as the main vitamin.Perbedaan similar compounds with vitamin are compounds produced by the body in sufficient quantities to meet daily needs. Some of these compounds been classified into the vitamin B complex because of the similarity function and a source of food. However, in general the role of vitamin like compounds is not as important as vitamins.
Kolina is a compound that belongs to a class of compounds like vitamins. These compounds can be found in every cell of living organisms and plays a role in the regulation of the nervous system are good and some metabolic sel.Mioinositol (myoinositol) were also included in the same class of compounds in the water-soluble vitamins. Specific role in the body is unknown. Another example of this vitamin like compounds is the acid-aminobenzoat (4-aminobenzoic acid, PABA) which acts as an antioxidant and a constituent of red blood cells. Karnitina are other compounds that play a role in fatty acid transport system and the formation of body muscles.
All kinds of life on earth need energy to survive. To produce this energy, living things require the help of various substances, one of which is oxygen. Oxygen is directly involved in energy metabolism in the body. As a side product, oxygen is released in the form of an unstable. The molecule is known as free radicals (Free Radicals).  are unstable oxygen has free electrons that are not paired so reactive. Reactivity of oxygen is very harmful for the body because it can oxidize and damage DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and cell membranes in the body. Other sources of free radicals is cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants, and ultraviolet light.
The body has several defense mechanisms against free radicals to neutralize the negative effects. Most of them are natural antioxidant compounds, such as enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Antioxidants alone means a compound that can prevent the occurrence of oxidation or other chemical reactions involving molecular oxygen (O2).  Other compounds may also act as an antioxidant is glutathione, CoQ10, and thiol groups on proteins and vitamins vitamin.Beberapa has been shown to have high antioxidant activity. Examples of vitamins that many compounds act as antioxidants in the body is vitamin C and vitamin E.
Vitamin E may help protect the body from free radical oxidation.  This vitamin is also capable of working in conditions compound the levels of free radicals that are able to efficiently and effectively suppress reactions destruction of tissue in the body through the process of oxidation. In addition to vitamin E, there is one type of vitamin that is also has a high antioxidant activity, namely vitamin C. This vitamin compounds interact with free radicals in the cell fluid. In addition, vitamin C can also recharge the body due to the oxidation of a variety of hazardous compounds.
If levels of free radicals in the body becomes very excessive and no longer can be anticipated by antioxidant compounds will give rise to a variety of chronic diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, heart disease, cataracts, alzhemeir, and arthritis.  For people who have a history of chronic disease is his lineage, it is recommended to eat lots of foods containing vitamin C and E as a source of antioxidant compounds. In addition, dietary supplements can also be helped to resolve the issue.
Minerals are essential nutrients for health maintenance and disease prevention. Mineral and vitamin interactions act. You need vitamins minerals in order to work and vice versa. Without some minerals / vitamins, multiple vitamins / minerals are not functioning properly. The biggest difference between vitamins and minerals is that minerals are inorganic compounds, while organic vitamins.
Minerals may be classified according to the amount your body needs. The main minerals (major) is a mineral that we need more than 100 mg a day, while the minor minerals (trace elements) is that we need less than 100 mg a day. Calcium, copper, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and chloride are examples of major minerals, while chromium, magnesium, iodine, iron, fluorine, manganese, selenium and zinc are examples of minor minerals. Distinction of these minerals is solely based on the amount needed, not interest. Minor minerals is not less important than the major minerals. Minor mineral deficiency will cause serious health problems as well.
When healthy and varied diet, tubuhmendapatkan enough minerals. However, if the diet is not balanced or have impaired absorption of minerals, the body can be deficient in minerals. Under these conditions, it may need to take vitamin and mineral supplements.
Here are the types of minerals important for our bodies:
- Calcium Milk is good food because it contains a lot of calcium. Drinking milk regularly to make sure to have strong bones and growing well. Until the age of 30 bones continue to grow and develop. After age 30, bone growth is not as fast depreciation. If you do not get enough calcium, the bones will be brittle at age 50. Calcium can slow this process. Calcium is a mineral that the body needs the greatest. Approximately 2-3 percent of body weight is calcium, in which 98% is stored in the bones and teeth and 1% in the blood. In addition to maintenance of bones and teeth, calcium also helps muscle contraction and relaxation, blood clotting, hormone function, secretion of enzymes, absorption of vitamin B12 and the prevention of kidney stones and heart disease. Sources: milk and milk products (cheese, yogurt, etc.), eggs, fish, nuts, and dark leafy greens.
- Magnesium Magnesium helps regulate levels of potassium and sodium in the body, is involved in the control of blood pressure. Magnesium plays an important role in the maintenance of dental tissues, bones and muscles, regulate body temperature, energy production and transport, metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, muscle contraction and relaxation. Most magnesium is stored in bones and teeth, others in the blood and muscles. If you do not have enough magnesium in your blood, your body will take it from your bones, which in turn can also cause bone loss. Sources: milk, green leafy vegetables, avocados, bananas, chocolate, soy products such as tempeh or tofu, whole grains and nuts.
- Saved iron in hemoglobin (red blood cells), iron carries oxygen to body cells and take carbon dioxide out of the body, supports muscle function, enzymes, protein and energy metabolism. Iron deficiency causes anemia, fatigue, weakness, headache and apathy. There are two types of iron in foods: heme iron easily absorbed by the body and found in meat, poultry and fish. Non-heme iron more easily absorbed and found in plants such as beans, broccoli, spinach and kale. Your body can absorb 20-40 percent of iron from animal sources, and 5-20 percent of iron from vegetable sources. You need to eat more vegetables to get the iron you need. To improve iron absorption, you need the help of vitamin C.
- Zinc (zinc) Zinc is present in all the cells of your body, especially the skin, nails, hair and eyes. If you are a man, you also keep your zinc in the prostate. Zinc plays an important role in DNA and RNA synthesis, production of proteins, insulin and sperm, helps in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, protein and alcohol play a role in removing carbon dioxide, accelerating healing, growth, maintenance of body tissues, and support the senses such as smell and taste. Zinc deficiency causes growth retardation, loss of appetite, slow healing, hair loss, low sex libido, loss of taste and smell and difficulty adapting to night light. Sources: water, high protein foods such as beef, mutton, and poultry, shellfish, crab, lobster, nuts and seeds.
- Selenium selenium body needs in small amounts but regularly for the health of the liver (liver). Selenium is found in soil, so that the amount found in vegetables and fruits depending on the planting and farming methods are used. Plants were grown in soil that is too often treated will have a low selenium. Sources: meat, fish and beans, milk and milk products, eggs, milk, chicken, garlic, onions, and green vegetables.
- Potassium, Sodium and Potassium Chloride (potassium), sodium and chloride are minerals that dissolve in the blood and other body fluids. They are split into ions. These three minerals are made of fluid in your body remains constant and does not fluctuate. They also play an important role in the transport of glucose into the cell and waste disposal, blood pressure, transmitting nerve impulses, heart rhythm and muscle function. Deficiency of these minerals cause drowsiness, anxiety, nausea, weakness, and irregular heartbeat. Sources: virtually all foods except for oils, fats and sugars, but can be damaged / lost if the food is cooked.
- Other minerals in addition to the minerals, other minerals needed by the body is boron, chromium, copper, fluorine, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, lead, and vanadium. In addition, the body also needs a very small dose of lithium and aluminum. No one knows why the body needs these minerals and how much your body needs. It is not very important because almost no one who is malnourished.